Architectural History

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Architectural Styles

An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable and historically identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, and regional character. Most architecture can be classified as a chronology of styles which change over time reflecting changing fashions, beliefs and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible.

Refer to the detailed List of architectural styles for more information.

Major Historical Periods and Styles

Time frames are approximate. Some styles and periods may start prior to or continue past noted end dates.

Approx. Start Approx. End Style Name
10,000 BC 3,000 BC Prehistoric
3,000 BC 400 AD Mediterranean and Middle-East Civilizations
3,300 BC 100 AD Ancient Asian
700 BC 700 AD Classical Antiquity
400 AD 1,000 AD Early Middle Ages
1,000 AD 1,500 AD Medieval Europe
600 AD 1,500 AD Asian architecture contemporary with the Dark Ages and medieval Europe
1,400 AD 1,500 AD American architecture contemporary with the Dark Ages and medieval Europe
1,400 AD 1,660 AD The Renaissance and its successors
1,500 AD 1,900 AD Asian architecture contemporary with Renaissance and post-Renaissance Europe
1,700 AD 1,800 AD Neoclassicism
1,800 AD 1,900 AD Revivalism and Orientalism
1,900 AD 1,940 AD Reactions to the Industrial Revolution
1,930 AD 1,970 AD Modernism and other styles contemporary with modernism
1,950 AD Present Postmodernism and early 21st century styles

History by Region and Period

Neolithic architecture

Antiquity

Islamic architecture

Africa

Southern Asia

Southeast Asia

Oceanic architecture

Eastern Asia

Pre-Colombian

Europe to 1400

European and colonial architecture

Architecture in the 21st century

Significant Buildings - Destroyed

Years noted are completion year, year of first occupation, or year of construction start in the case of extended construction projects.

Year - Year Destroyed: Name, Country - Architect

Significant Buildings - Standing

Years noted are completion year, year of first occupation, or year of construction start in the case of extended construction projects.

Year Name Country Architect
80 AD Colosseum Italy Unknown
125 AD Pantheon Italy Unknown
537 AD Hagia Sophia Istanbul Several
691 AD Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Raja ibn Haywah, Yazid Ibn Salam
630 AD (Disputed) Al-Masjid Al-Ḥaram or the "Great Mosque of Mecca" Saudia Arabia Several
1,173 AD Leaning Tower of Pisa Italy Bonnano Pisano, Diotisalvi
1,248 AD Cologne Cathedral Germany Master Gerhard, Barbara Schock-Werner
1,560 AD St. Basil Cathedral Russia Postnik Yakolev
1,648 AD Taj Mahal India Ustad Ahmad Lahouri, Ustad Isa
1,668 AD St. Paul’s Cathedral Great Britain Sir Christopher Wren
1,703 AD Buckingham Palace Great Britain Several
1,801 AD The White House United States of America James Hoban
1,902 AD Casa Milà Spain Antoni Gaudi
1,902 AD Flatiron Building United States of America Daniel Burnham
1,920 AD Frank Gehry Residence United States of America Frank Gehry
1,930 AD Chrysler Building United States of America William Van Alen
1,931 AD Empire State Building United States of America Shreve, Lamb and Harmon
1,931 AD Villa Savoye France Le Corbusier
1,934 AD Falling Water United States of America Frank Lloyd Wright
1,962 AD Space Needle United States of America Edward E Carlson, John Graham
1,973 AD Sydney Opera House Australia Jorn Utzon
1,986 AD Lloyds Building Great Britain Richard Rogers
1,986 AD Lotus Temple New Delhi Fariborz Sahba
1,997 AD Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao Spain Frank Gehry
1,998 AD Petronas Towers Malaysia Cesar Pelli, Achmad Murdijat
2,010 AD Burj Khalifa Dubai Skidmore, Owings and Merril LLP
2,012 AD The Shard Great Britain Renzo Piano
* 2,013 AD One World Trade Center United States of America



  • Milwaukee Art Museum, United States of America
  • The Statue of Liberty, United States of America
  • Blue Domed Church, Greece
  • Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
  • Big Ben, Great Britain
  • Burj Al Arab Hotel, Dubai

Significant Architects